Copying and Plagiarism at University

Featured

Copying and plagiarism have always been apparent for various reasons and manifested in many ways.  Reasons can include rote learning via pedagogy versus andragogy, not coping or under time pressure which can lead to short cuts that can be easily identified by software such as Turnitin.

From Henrietta Cook in The Sydney Morning Herald:

How unis can beat the cheats by finding ‘fingerprints’ in their essays.

The tell tale signs of a cheat could be lurking in a comma or a seemingly innocuous double space after a full stop.

As universities grapple with a rise in contract cheating – which involves students outsourcing their assessments – technology is clamping down on the unethical practice by monitoring students’ unique writing styles.

The software, which has been created by US-based company Turnitin and will be launched later this year, is being developed and tested at Australian institutions including Deakin University, the University of New South Wales, the University of Wollongong and the University of Queensland.

Forensic linguists – the experts who scrutinise ransom notes and suspicious wills – helped identify 70 different factors that feed into a person’s unique writing style.

These include the use of commas, parentheses and dashes, how they list examples and whether they double space after a full stop…

…. Universities Australia chief executive Catriona Jackson said universities were continually coming up with new ways to detect cheating.

“There’s a clear message to all students in this: if you try to cheat, it’s very likely that you’ll get caught. So just don’t do it.”’

 

Advice for students (and institutions) would be learn how to write academically (should be compulsory in all university foundation and/or bachelor degree programs), plan well with time management to include good research of references or sources, use required referencing system (correctly) included in process of note taking, paraphrasing and synthesis, have draft for checking by lecturers, tutors or learning advisors, for feedback.

Further, institutions could provide a generic TurnitIn point for students to check essay or report drafts and be rewarded for process, as well as grade outcomes.

For more articles and blogs about teaching, learning and assessment click through.

Advertisements

TAE40116 Certificate IV Training Assessment Package – ASQA Review Submission

Submission for TAE40116 Training Package Review

 

Written by Andrew Smith; submitted 3 April 2018

Introduction

There has been much discussion amongst training practitioners about the updated TAE Training Package.  One of the main issues has been the perception that it has been designed for quality administration and assessment while neglecting quality of actual training delivery and learning.

ASQA Australian Skills Quality Authority Certificate IV Training and Assessment TAE40116 Review

TAE40116 Certificate IV in Training and Assessment – ASQA Review (Image copyright ASQA)

This has been experienced by the writer currently upgrading BSZ to TAE via a registered training organisation (RTO) by distance learning; PO Box with ‘assessors’ and ‘trainers’ based offshore.  Further, the delivery is based upon basic pedagogy of presentation of content, regurgitation of content according to instructions while seemingly unable to offer explanations or insight for trainees, especially delivery and learning skills based upon andragogy.

 

What is the TAE Training Package?

 

Description

 

This qualification reflects the roles of individuals delivering training and assessment services in the vocational education and training (VET) sector.

This qualification (or the skill sets derived from units of competency within it) is also suitable preparation for those engaged in the delivery of training and assessment of competence in a workplace context, as a component of a structured VET program.

The volume of learning of a Certificate IV in Training and Assessment is typically six months to two years. (Department of Education & Training 2018).

At face value the TAE40116 appears to be a relevant and practical qualification for vocational education and training to deliver accredited training packages, assure quality with a focus upon assessment.  However, there have been many criticisms of the package from practitioners, industry and other stakeholders, why?

Issues with TAE Training Package and Delivery

 

According to the Resources Training Council

 

It has become a qualification for the training industry, not industry that trains. They do not understand workplaces where training and more importantly the outcomes (assessment) must be fit for purpose to achieve what VET is all about.  VET should be about producing safe, proficient (productive) workers and providing an opportunity for learning to be built on as people move along their chosen career path (Munro 2017).

 

From an experienced VET training practitioner

 

To improve assessment practices of RTOs and improve skills and knowledge of trainers and assessors we need to:

  • Update our regulatory framework and move to a real outcome-based regulation, where relevant industry stakeholders have a say in the registration/re-registration process
  • Support the National Regulator in building the required capabilities to assess compliance in a diverse and complex environment
  • Ensure the National Regulator provides an even-playing-field to RTOs
  • Identify the different issues within the assessment system, and consequently identify gaps in current workforce skills (in all AQF levels not only entry level) and update the TAE training package accordingly (Castillo 2016).

 

Research criticisms have included: one size fits all approach whether novice trainer or an already well experienced and/or qualified trainer or teacher, trainer assessor expertise or skills, questions over subsequent assessment outcomes, lack of depth related to training and learning delivery, no clear development pathway and the skill outcomes from the TAE for practitioners to deliver (Clayton 2009).

The focus of criticism has been directed at sub-optimal education and training pedagogy (learning theory for children and young adults or novices) of both the TAE and practitioners for quality delivery, learning and trainee assessment outcomes.  These revolved round, preparedness of trainers to train, opportunity to learn content knowledge, delivery quality, learning the practice of good teaching or training, learning from experts, then more about planning and assessment (Ibid.)

The latter issue of assessment has been raised within sectors whether validation between providers, or simply better understanding of assessment by practitioners (Halliday-Wynes & Misko 2013)

Further, expert input often hints at what is lacking by focusing upon learning theory or ‘pedagogy’ for children and youth, as opposed to ‘andragogy’ for youth and adults.  The latter would be exemplified by self-directed learning or training, responsibility, experience, motivation to learn and preference for real tasks and problem solving (Educators’ Technology 2013); supported by well skilled trainers.

 

Training Delivery and Learning Quality

 

However, delivery of some TAEs has more to do with education and training or ‘pedagogy’ influence from two generations ago manifested in trainer or teacher directed, or top down.  This assumes trainees have no relevant knowledge or practical input to offer, focus upon systems, processes and assessment round any given package, but not delivery i.e. developing quality training and learning skills.  Additionally, very content driven for good reason, however, it is presented or instructed (not elicited) then regurgitated or replicated for satisfying requirements for assessment, then assumed optimal for the workplace?

The significant size of the VET sector requires standard packages, systems, processes and assessment to be compliant and manageable.  However, the risk is that system quality may be based upon indirect top down paper-based systems and processes of (quality) compliance that are reactive when issues emerge, if discovered.  For example, sub-optimal training and learning, versus proactive measures through more intrusive evaluation of actual training delivery quality or bottom up informing.

Quality maybe improved by intrusive quality assessment through mystery shopping on any given TAE course, dynamic (publicised opportunities) for feedback from trainees and clients, evaluation of specific programs and trainers or evidence of dynamic quality evaluation of skills versus merely possessing a TAE qualification or ‘ticket’.

 

References:

 

Castillo, A 2016, Newly endorsed Certificate IV in Training and Assessment – Same Issues, LinkedIn Pulse, viewed 22 March 2018, < https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/newly-endorsed-certificate-iv-training-assessment-amaro-castillo/ >

 

Clayton, B 2009, Practitioner experiences and expectations with the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (TAA40104): A discussion of the issues, NCVER Melbourne, viewed 22 March 2018, < https://www.ncver.edu.au/__data/assets/file/0023/4658/nr08504r.pdf >

 

Department of Education & Training 2018, MySkills: Certificate IV in Training and Assessment, viewed 22 March 2018, < https://www.myskills.gov.au/courses/details?Code=TAE40116 >

 

Educators’ Technology 2013, AWESOME CHART ON “PEDAGOGY VS ANDRAGOGY”, viewed 1 April 2018, < http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2013/05/awesome-chart-on-pedagogy-vs-andragogy.html >

 

Halliday-Wynes, S & Misko, J 2013, Assessment issues in VET: minimising the level of risk, NCVER, viewed 22 March 2018, < http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/801600/AssessmentIssuesInVET_MinimisingTheLevelOfRisk.pdf >

 

Munro, J 2017, The TAE debacle – a resources sector view, Resources Training Council, viewed 31 January 2018, < http://www.resourcestraining.org.au/news/the-tae-debacle/ >

VET Vocational Education Training TAFE TAE and Related Issues

Following is an excerpt from a news article and an Education Minister’s press release proposing new source of school teachers while the vocational system is in a state of flux with the sub-optimal TAE Certificate IV in Training and Assessment and quality.

Workplace Training in Australia and the TAE Certificate IV in Training and Assessment

Workplace Training in Australia and the TAE Photo by Mikes Photos from Pexels

From tradies to teachers: The plan to ‘shake up Australia’s schools‘.  The Turnbull government wants to encourage tradies to become teachers, and nurses to swap the clinic for the classroom, under a plan to “shake up” the country’s schools.

A national review of teacher registration – to be announced Saturday – will look to streamline the process for becoming a teacher around Australia……

At present, most states require teachers to attain at least a diploma of education, if not an undergraduate teaching degree……..

….Education Minister Simon Birmingham said it should be easier for people with experience in specialist areas to teach those trades at schools and vocational colleges…

…Australia’s falling position on global literacy and numeracy rankings, as well as disappointing NAPLAN results, have worried education ministers around the country.

 

The article does not offer any context or reason for the Minister’s or the government’s ‘plan’?

The Australian Education Council has not made any related public statements, let alone conducted research?

For the government, the Minister and the Education Department’s interest, there TAE40116 – Certificate IV in Training and Assessment is already a pathway for trades and healthcare personnel to teach or train:

Qualification Description

This qualification reflects the roles of individuals delivering training and assessment services in the vocational education and training (VET) sector.

This qualification (or the skill sets derived from units of competency within it) is also suitable preparation for those engaged in the delivery of training and assessment of competence in a workplace context, as a component of a structured VET program.

The volume of learning of a Certificate IV in Training and Assessment is typically six months to two years.

Licensing/Regulatory Information

Achievement of this qualification by trainers is a requirement of the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015

 

Further, in a relate article from Jim Munro, CEO of the Resources Training Council ‘The TAE debacle – a resources sector view’:

It is this writer’s opinion, that since BSZ, this program has been slowly hi-jacked by those who have no idea of what happens in the real world of workplace training. It has become a qualification for the training industry, not industry that trains.

 

One has observed in the past generation or two, several significant changes including removal of many technical streams and sometimes active ‘dumbing down’ of high school or matriculation education curricula (lower competency for entry to STEM or university, lack of skills in language, literacy and numeracy LLN, and removal of explicit teaching of ‘critical thinking’), teaching becoming too academic and pedagogic (teacher directed) based, versus andragogic (student centred); overseen by teacher unions, the (hollowed out) bureaucracy, resurgence in old conservative ideas of education and looking down at VET or TAFE.

Appears to be following the US conservative and/or nativist strategy of supporting elite schools and compromising the rest, leading to sub-optimal education and training outcomes in society and employment, exemplified by dumbing down, anti-science sentiment, leveraging or compromising sympathetic paid academia or research for political purposes etc.; leading to or maintaining more compliant, observant and respectful (to authority) society?

Ten years ago, we had John Howard promoting the anti ‘black arm band’ version of history, school chaplain program (outsourced to some dubious US influenced charities), last week the Liberal Opposition in Victoria mooted the idea of police permanently based in schools and now federally the government is planning that ‘tradies’ and ‘nurses’ can transfer into high schools, why do they want this disruption?

It may also follow the nostalgia of work and need to have influence, not just for conservatives of the right, but old ‘culturally specific’ white working-class conservatives in the important upper age median vote, who used to vote Labor?

They could do better by improving the Cert IV qualification or TAE which is seriously flawed due to focus upon narrow training package inputs, and assessment outputs with administration of related process and document management, or Taylor’s ‘Scientific Management’ as used on assembly lines.

However, the TAE ignores or is not fit for purpose when it does not equip trainers with practical skills to deliver quality training and learning, more about leading learners to become robots (workers following instructions) in a system of processes made easier to administer and audit; maybe the intention?

Rather than reinvent the wheel just fix up the existing wheel to offer training or teaching opportunities to ‘tradies’ and nurses, maybe review and improve the career or further study counselling youth receive from teachers, parents and peers, while repairing TAE and VET sector’s reputation?

 

 

 

Strategic Management – Porter’s Five Forces – Business Simulation Literature

Business Simulation – Strategic Management

Literature Review

 

Introduction

 

Business simulations have become an important tool for students of business and related studies to apply theory to practice, as a learning or experiential tool (Anderson & Lawton, 2009); also useful for mapping out strategies under different scenarios for real world by corporates.

 

A business simulation also allows students or participants to apply or refine various hard and soft skills including finance, management, marketing, operations etc.  for the former; communication, research, analysis, team work, planning, strategy, report writing and more for the latter (Bingham and Drew, 1999).  Further, team work or group dynamics in simulations can be analysed regarding impact upon any simulation, learning, and also actual business or real world (Malik & Howard, 1996). Learning can be enhanced by the use of business simulations along with conventional forms of education exemplified by reflection, case studies and discussion (Keys, 1977).

 

In other related study areas or fields, i.e. international relations and political science, student evaluation feedback seems to confirm that simulations help in understanding and applying abstract theories and concepts (Shellman & Turan, 2006).

 

Studies of business simulations have emphasised the identification and importance of success factors, planning and stable strategy, as part of the decision-making strategy along with team cohesion (Gosenpud et al., 1984).

 

Accordingly, business simulations such as Global DNA and CompXM have many applications in business from training and development, through market planning, strategy and analysis.

 

Theoretical Frameworks

 

There were issues faced by Andrews in CompXM when dealing with competition.  This included more competitive pricing, better specifications or lower operating costs, new or updated products, customer satisfaction and what appeared to be a drift back from performance to budget.

 

Competition is the main factor in business, in other words, success or failure.  Competitive strategy revolves round long term profitability and what determines it, and how to be competitive in any specific industry. The latter is most important as a company can at least shape a competitive strategy, however shaping an industry is generally not possible.

Competitive strategy can be through two main aspects, cost leadership and differentiation.  These five competitive forces include new competition, product substitution, buyer power, supplier power and existing competition (Porter, 1985).  Based on this a corporate strategist or investor must work out their place in the market via strategy, for example, what are our strengths and weaknesses, what may create best income or which should be observed as opportunities or threats (Porter, 2000)?

 

Competitive advantage requires any company to meet or exceed customer expectations via the value chain to assess what perceived value is for customers.   The value chain is dominated by internal processes that lead to a product or service outcome e.g. R&D, marketing, production and finance (IMA Institute of Management Accountants, 1996).

 

Of direct importance is the product lifecycle, especially within innovative industries, exemplified by low barriers to entry, high product differentiation, high innovation while the market can move rapidly.  With maturity, even with further industry growth, fewer new entrants versus exiting, fewer producers, less innovation, less diversity, with more focus upon production processes and market shares stabilise (Klepper, 1996).

 

Reference List:

 

Advameg, Inc. (2016) Cochlear Ltd. – Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Cochlear Ltd. Available from: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/29/Cochlear-Ltd.html (Accessed 27/7/16).

Anderson, P. & Lawton, L. Business Simulations and Cognitive Learning: Developments, Desires, and Future Directions, Simulation & Gaming. Sage Journals. 2009 USA.

 

Austrade, (2016) Industries – Export Markets – Taiwan – Market Profile. Available at: http://www.austrade.gov.au/Australian/Export/Export-markets/Countries/Taiwan/Market-profile (Accessed 7/9/16).

 

Bennett & Giancola (2015) Nurotron Biotechnology Wins Tender.  Available at: http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/11/prweb13104465.htm (Accessed 28/7/16).

 

Bingham, R. & Drew, S. (1999) Key Work Skills, Aldershot/England: Gower.

 

Biotech & Pharmaceutical Industries Program Office (2016) Taiwan’s Biotech Industry Overview. Available at:  http://www.bdi.ie/presentations/taiwan_workshop/taiwan_research_groups_day_1/Prof_Chei_Hsiang_-_Taiwans_Biotech_Industry_Overview.pdf (Accessed 7/9/16).

 

Bloomberg, (2013) Nurotron Annual Report. Available from: http://www.nurotron.com/sites/default/files/2013.3.31%20Bloomberg%20-%20Nurotron%20Report.pdf (Accessed 27/05/2016).

 

Comp-XM (2016) The Globe Report, Chicago, IL: Capsim Management Simulations.

 

Cochlear (2015) Cochlear Annual Report 2015 – Hearing Performance. Sydney: Cochlear.  Available from: http://www.cochlear.com/wps/wcm/connect/2a3956c0-f09d-4ce7-a8c9-8b0ddccf1999/en_corporate_annualreport2015_financial_1.54mb.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CONVERT_TO=url&CACHEID=2a3956c0-f09d-4ce7-a8c9-8b0ddccf1999 (Accessed: 27/05/2016).

 

Economist Intelligence Unit (2016) Taiwan Healthcare.  Available at: http://country.eiu.com/Industry.aspx?Country=Taiwan&topic=Industry&subtopic=Healthcare (Accessed 7/9/16).

 

Global DNA (2016) The Globe Report, Chicago, IL: Capsim Management Simulations.

 

Gosenpud, J.; Miessing, P. & Milton, C. (1984) A Research Study on Strategic Decisions in a Business Simulation.  Developments in Business Simulation & Experiential Learning, Volume 11, 1984.

 

Institute of Management Accountants IMA (1996) Value Chain Analysis for Assessing Competitive Advantage. Statements on Management Accounting. Practice of Management Accounting. Montvale N.J.: Institute of Management Accountants.

 

Investopedia (2016) Porter’s 5 Forces. Available at: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/porter.asp (Accessed: 01/06/2016).

 

Keys, B. (1977) Review of Learning Research in Business Gaming. Computer Simulation and Learning Theory, Volume 3, 1977.

 

Klepper, S (1996) Entry, Exit, Growth, and Innovation over the Product Life Cycle. The American Economic Review. Vol. 86, No. 3 (Jun., 1996), pp. 562-583.

 

Malik, S. & Howard, B (1996) How Do We Know Where We Are Going If We Don’t Know Where We Have Been: A Review in Business Simulation Research. Developments in Business Simulation & Experiential Exercises, Volume 23, 1996.

 

Porter, M. (1985) Competitive Advantage – Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York: The Free Press.

 

Porter, M. (2000) How competitive forces shape strategy. Harvard Business Review. March-April 1979 pages 137-145.

 

Shellman, S. & Turan, K. Do Simulations Enhance Student Learning? An Empirical Evaluation of an IR Simulation, Thematic Issue: Simulations in Political Science, Published online: 24 Feb 2007, pages 19-32 Journal of Political Science Education, Volume 2, Issue 1, 2006.

 

 

Business Simulation – Strategic Management – Higher Education – Capsim

Featured

Business Simulation Capsim

 

Global DNA & Comp-XM – Company Exemplar – Cochlear Bionic Hearing Implants

 

Abstract or executive summary of a business simulation report presented to faculty in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Business Administration (International Business) at European University Business School & University of Roehampton.

 

 

Executive Summary

 

Cochlear Australia has potential to enter, create market share and be profitable in the Taiwanese market for bionic hearing implant devices; without need for dominating.  Taiwan has a state and private backed health sector, biotechnology strategy, middle income nation of 23.5 million, ageing population through improved longevity, almost all are insured and excellent relations with Australia.

 

Any successful strategy will be based upon research and development R&D, marketing, production and finance divisions; with commensurate excellence in human resources with strong focus upon innovation, differentiated products, customer satisfaction, forecasting, cost control and attracting further investment.

 

Through using two Capsim business simulations, Global DNA and Comp-XM, relevant and inter-dependent personnel can develop strategies, then apply and evaluate key performance indicators KPIs for testing the market, in addition to lessening the impact of silo mentality.  Simulation, risk free, exemplified the need for investment in innovation and automation to satisfy customers, good communication, forecasting and cost control for continued profitability.

 

Simulations showed the need for a suite of products for both budget and performance, while suggesting a trend towards moderate pricing to retain market share.  This was confirmed by impairment due to unexpected events including price cutting or dumping of competitor products, in addition to lagging on higher specifications on products and automation; both making forecasting of demand and sales difficult.  The lesson was never assume anything, especially market dominance or competitive share, and be constantly aware of the market, including awareness of other divisions.

 

The optimal strategy reflected the need for achieving customer satisfaction in both budget and performance segments through incremental improvements, investment in R&D, plant automation investment, leading onto cost control, profitability and then attracting continued investment through sound financial KPIs.

 

As markets mature the strategy is important, while understanding that organic profit growth is achievable even if population growth slows and market share remains static, as the population ages and suffers widespread age-related hearing impairment.

 

The first simulation Global DNA in a higher growth environment followed by the lower growth Comp-XM highlighted that markets may not continually grow thus precluding market domination and increased sales.

 

However, both simulations indicated that profitability could be maintained without dominating market share provided customer satisfaction was addressed with continual attracting of investment in R&D and product innovation, plant automation lowering costs and human resource development.

 

Cochlear could leverage such simulations further for both new or existing market strategy and planning, in addition to supporting the skills development of all relevant company personnel globally, thus achieving share and stakeholder objectives.